Principles of Sex-based Differences in Physiology

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Biology of Sex Differences will serve as a forum for translating basic science into clinical practice. We welcome articles studying basic biology, that translate basic biology into medical practice, and that measure sex differences in the clinic and in the incidence and progression of human disease.

Sex and age are the two main modifiers of disease risk, presentation, and treatment. Treating one sex like the other may be as inappropriate as treating a child like an adult.

To improve health for both women and men, we must understand specifically how sex modifies disease risk, presentation, and treatment. The equitable treatment of females and males requires an understanding of their differences, which provides a necessary foundation for an appropriate response to their individual differences.

To ignore the differences is as dangerous as it is to overemphasize them. A goal of the Biology of Sex Differences is to increase understanding of the sex-specific forces that make the sexes different, and make them more similar than they otherwise would be. Washington D. Science , — Voskuhl RR: Sex differences in autoimmune diseases. In Hormones, Brain, and Behavior. Elsevier; — Trends Neurosci , — In In Encyclopedia of the Human Brain. Edited by: Ramachandran VS.

San Diego: Academic Press; — Annu Rev Physiol , 1— Obes Rev , — Cancer Lett , 1—8.

Trends Pharmacol Sci , — Pharmacol Res , 81— Neurosci Biobehav Rev De Vries GJ: Minireview: Sex differences in adult and developing brains: compensation, compensation, compensation. Endocrinol , — Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet , 6: 69— Nat Genet , 47— Arnold AP: The organizational-activational hypothesis as the foundation for a unified theory of sexual differentiation of all mammalian tissues.

Horm Behav , — Pain , Suppl 1 :SS Arnold AP: Sex chromosomes and brain gender.


Nat Rev Neurosci , 5: — Arnold AP: Mouse models for evaluating sex chromosome effects that cause sex differences in non-gonadal tissues. J Neuroendocrinol , — Tilmann C, Capel B: Cellular and molecular pathways regulating mammalian sex determination. Recent Prog Horm Res , 1— Koopman P: The delicate balance between male and female sex determining pathways: potential for disruption of early steps in sexual development.

Int J Androl , — Dobzhansky T: Nothing in biology makes sense except in light of evolutoin. American Biology Teacher , — Graves JAM: Sex chromosome specialization and degeneration in mammals. Cell , — Nottebohm F, editor: Hope for a new neurology.

Sex differences in psychology - Wikipedia

Szyf M: The early life environment and the epigenome. Biochim Biophys Acta , — Turner BM: Epigenetic responses to environmental change and their evolutionary implications. Nadeau JH: Transgenerational genetic effects on phenotypic variation and disease risk. Hum Mol Genet , RR Download references. Correspondence to Arthur P Arnold. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.


Reprints and Permissions. Search all BMC articles Search. Sex matters There is increasing evidence that males and females differ in their basic physiology, and in the susceptibility to and progression of diseases. Biomedical science has shown a strong sex bias and blindness to sex Analysis of the scientific literature in numerous disciplines leads to the general conclusion that males are studied much more than females [ 12 ], in both animal and human research, so that the basic biology of medical texts may better reflect the biology of males than females.

The study of sex differences is a field of its own Historically, sex differences have been studied most often in tissues involved in reproduction, where the differences are large: the gonads, internal and external genitalia, and brain and behavior.

Sex Differences in Physiology

New understanding of the biology of sex differences The revolution in molecular biology and genetics is rapidly advancing our understanding of the sex chromosomes, which are the only factors in animals with heteromorphic sex chromosomes that are thought to differ consistently in female and male zygotes, and which therefore give rise to all subsequent sex differences [ 16 , 19 ]. The importance of sex-specific environments It is abundantly clear, from research and casual observation, that girls and boys are reared in fundamentally different environments, and schooled within a highly gendered framework of expectations.

Studying sex differences is an important strategy for understanding diseases and for developing therapies The existence of sex differences in disease implies that one sex has a sex-specific factor or process that protects from the disease. Equality and Diversity in Clinical Practice Biology of Sex Differences will serve as a forum for translating basic science into clinical practice.

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References 1. Google Scholar 2. Reflex control of the circulation. Sex differences in hypertension and renal injury. Influence of sex hormones on the neuromuscular junction.

Genes that drive male-female brain differences, timing of puberty

Sexbased differences in substrate metabolism. Sex differences in steroidinduced synaptic plasticity. Mechanisms of sexbased neuropathologies. Chapter 7. Cardiovascular membrane excitability and the influence of. Sexdifferences in electrophysiology of the heart and cardiac arrhythmias. Sex differences in autoimmunity. Influence of hormones and sex on platelet functions. Sex differences in wound healing. Nature 1;4 Copolymer 1 Multiple Sclerosis Study Group.

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