The A-Z Encyclopedia of Alcohol and Drug Abuse

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Free Online Access. Spread the Word. Download a Free Poster. Download and print a poster to promote your titles in your school or library. Salem Press. Designed for the general reader, this two-volume set provides authoritative and essential information pertaining to addictions and substance abuse in easy-to-understand language. Carol Falkowski. Drugs Across the Spectrum reviews both legal and illegal drugs in an easy reference format. Presents the latest information on designer and club drugs, newer drugs such as Oxycontin, and performance-enhancers such as THG.

Ray Goldberg. Handbook of Substance Abuse: Neurobehavioral Pharmacology surveys eleven classes of drugs from the perspectives of neurological, behavioural, and clinical pharmacology.

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Ammerman, Peggy J. Illegal Drugs: A Complete Guide to Their History, Chemistry, Use and Abuse is a comprehensive reference for information on every drug currently prohibited by law in the United States including their histories, chemical properties, effects, medical uses, associated health problems, as well as addiction and treatment information. Paul M. Mind-Altering Drugs: The Science of Subjective Experience is the first book to bring together chapters from leading researchers that present diverse, empirically-based insights into the subjective experiences of drugs and their links to addictive potential.

Mitchell Earleywine. Mind Drugs 6th Ed. There are chapters on uppers, downers, and marijuana, as well as LSD. Margaret O. Andrew Weil. Joyce H. Lowinson, Pedro Ruiz, Robert B. It provides detailed discussions that include the history, chemistry, biology, epidemiology, and salient characteristics of the most important substances of abuse. David M. McDowell, Henry I. Caroline Jean Acker, Sarah W. Includes information on Timothy Leary. Martin Torgoff. Consuming Habits: Drugs in History and Anthropology suggests that psychoactive substances are integral to the construction of culture, and a rich analytical category for the study of historical and cultural processes.

This collection of original essays explores psychoactive substances from enlightening historical and anthropological perspectives. Jordan Goodman, Paul E. Lovejoy, Andrew Sherratt. Forces of Habit: Drugs and the Making of the Modern World is a world history of drugs from ganja smoking in ancient India to vodka swilling in modern Russia. The Pursuit of Oblivion: A Global History of Narcotics is a depiction of the people and events that have shaped the history of narcotics.

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Tells the story of addicts and users across five centuries: monarchs, politicians, great writers and composers, exhausted laborers, pop stars, etc. Richard Davenport-Hines. Primary prevention interventions are designed to enhance protective factors of all students in order to keep problems from emerging. Secondary prevention interventions are designed to reverse the harm from exposure to known risk factors for a selected group of students. The Institute of Medicine's framework for disease prevention has been broadly adopted in the substance abuse field as a guide in determining when and with whom to intervene.

The framework expands on the primary, secondary, and tertiary categories and offers three basic classifications of interventions based on the kind of population they target Institute of Medicine, ; Offord, Universal prevention targets all individuals regardless of their level of risk. Prevention in this case aims at deterring or delaying the onset of substance use: for example, addressing all seventh graders in a classroom, without tailoring the message to those at different levels of risk.

Selective prevention targets those at risk for substance abuse because of their membership in a subgroup of the population that is known to be vulnerable. For example, selective prevention strategies have been designed for dropouts, children of adult alcoholics, or victims of family violence. Although not all individuals identified as part of a selective group may be at risk with a presumption of alcohol or drug use or abuse, they receive the intervention because of their group membership. This approach risks alienating or inappropriately labeling some individuals. Indicated prevention targets those already using or engaged in behaviors known to lead to drug use.

These individuals do not meet criteria for addiction but show early signs such as using gateway drugs tobacco, alcohol and underperforming in school. These interventions aim at cessation or reducing the severity of use. Indicated interventions tend to focus more on the individual and less on community variables than the other two classifications. Sometimes there is no clear distinction between indicated prevention and treatment, which can lead to overemphasizing the risk factors over the protective factors needed for success. These model programs are very diverse but tend to provide content on normative education, social skills, social influences, perceived harm, protective factors, and refusal skills.

Substance abuse prevention shares many of the same ethical dilemmas as alcohol and other drug treatment. Confidentiality is paramount, but since most prevention interventions target youth, confidentiality could present an ethical dilemma. Children and youth participating in a prevention intervention often disclose to the social worker or other preventionist their activities or situations they experience at home.

If the students are minors and make known that they are engaging in an unlawful behavior, such as purchasing and consuming alcohol and other drugs, the social worker or preventionist has an ethical obligation to follow school or agency policy about addressing the behavior.

The same procedures need to be applied if minors report drug use by their parents or other adults that may be associated with child abuse or neglect. Although law enforcement is meant to deter the illegal or dangerous behavior of parents, their involvement may also negatively affect the child.

Involving law enforcement is often necessary to ensure the safety of a child, such as when reporting a parent or other adult for providing alcohol or drugs to a minor or because the parents abuse drugs, but reporting it to the police may lead to the arrest of the parents or the removal of the child from the parents' home. On the other hand, social workers conducting research must ensure confidentiality in order to protect the participants. The participants must feel comfortable and confident that their responses will not be associated with their names when the results of the study are reported.

Therefore, as interventions are evaluated, strict confidentiality needs to be assured in order to attain reliable data from the participants.

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The use of unique identifiers instead of any personal identifiers is recommended. Although studies have shown prevention programs to be efficacious, each community has its own unique demographics, strengths, and challenges, and implementing or adapting an identified model program, while maintaining fidelity, may be difficult Kulis et al. Social workers, educators, and researchers also need to increase their effectiveness in promoting proven programs and convincing policymakers to adopt policies and provide funding for implementation of programs.

Alcohol use rates vary among racial, ethnic, and cultural groups. Within each group there are also differences in consumption based on gender, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status. Studies indicate, for instance, that Latino gay males are less likely than Whites to use methamphetamines or cocaine Colfax et al.


Adaptation of standard prevention intervention to serve the needs of members of ethnic minority groups has also been challenged. There is a movement to recognize multiple factors as part of the clients' holistic experience, and as such, prevention aims at reaching the clients at the intersection of these factors Kulis et al. Cultural adaptations of effective prevention programs range from minor to major adaptations of the interventions in order to tailor the prevention program to a cultural group which differs from the group for which the intervention was originally designed.

While cultural adaptations may be helpful in certain situations, a more effective and authentic strategy is to develop culturally grounded or culturally specific interventions. These interventions are designed with the language, culture, values, beliefs, behaviors, and norms of the population the prevention program is intended to serve Okamoto et al. Culturally grounded or culturally specific interventions are being developed and evaluated by social workers in order to better integrate cultural strengths as part of the design of the intervention and not as an afterthought Marsiglia et al.

Substance use in rural areas has increasingly become a concern. Poverty combined with an influx of drugs from drug dealers searching for new markets, and the lack of resources, has created a high-risk environment for rural youth. Youth in rural areas are more likely to binge drink than youth in urban areas. Easy-to-manufacture drugs such as methamphetamines have become prevalent in rural communities Clay, Unfortunately, not only are there limited resources for prevention programs in rural communities, but prevention programs are not being developed to account for the geography, lifestyle, and culture of rural communities.

Social work researchers can take the lead in developing much-needed substance abuse prevention programs to address the unique needs of rural communities. Compared with Whites, people of color are more likely to have low incomes, and low-income communities are disproportionally affected by alcohol and other drug use Resnicow et al. Poor living conditions, violence at home or in the community, high dropout rates, and the availability and accessibility of drugs and alcohol must be addressed comprehensively. Prevention programs must assess the strengths and assets as well as the vulnerabilities of communities in order to build more positive environments.

Substance abuse is a global problem. Worldwide, alcohol use accounts for 2. In response to the global health need, prevention programs originating in one country are being utilized in other countries, and prevention researchers are actively collaborating in developing and adapting effective programs.

Social work researchers are participating in the design and implementation of international prevention adaptation trials and in multisite international prevention interventions through randomized trials and pilot exploratory studies Marsiglia et al. Social workers provide essential preventive services to diverse communities at the micro, mezzo, and macro levels.

They are often responsible for developing as well as implementing prevention programs in schools and other community settings and evaluating their effectiveness. A prevention program cannot be developed or implemented without funding, and to secure funding from federal, state, county, and municipal levels, prevention programs must often be selected from an evidence-based list such as SAMHSA's National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices. Social workers must therefore utilize existing research or conduct new research in order to secure funding for programs that would best meet the needs of the communities or individuals they work with.

The connection that social workers have to the community allows for research on substance abuse and prevention to be more culturally grounded, relevant, and applicable to the communities they work with Kulis et al. As a result, social workers are valued members of the community and are able to develop collaborations with educators, representatives of community-based organizations, and community members at large in order to provide not only alcohol and other drug prevention programs, but also the most effective and efficient services possible to address a variety of social and behavioral health issues.

In clinical settings social workers have unique opportunities to conduct alcohol and drug prevention by including key screening questions with all clients regardless of their age or other demographics. As a result of the high comorbidity of substance abuse with other behavioral and mental health conditions, social workers play a significant role in early detection and prevention regardless of the presenting problem.

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Social workers are uniquely positioned to intervene throughout the prevention-to-treatment continuum as they practice in different fields and use different practice modalities. Not only do social workers provide services in the community, but they are mandated by the NASW Code of Ethics to promote social justice and advocate for social change on behalf of clients NASW, As a result, social workers also play key roles in advocating for social policies and developing substance use and prevention programs that are evidence-based and meet the needs of diverse populations NASW, The combination of research, clinical, community organization, and social advocacy skills allows social work professionals to be effective at working with individuals, groups, or communities to promote positive outcomes.